WHAT IS REPRODUCTIVE SURGERY?
Sometimes the female reproductive system may have some anomalies; either you were born this way, or developed it over time or as a result of trauma to the uterus.
The Shape of the Uterus:
Uterine malformations occur due to impaired normal development of the uterus and can lead to implantation failures and recurrent miscarriages.
The ultrasound will be used to check the uterus and the “Sonohysterosalpingogram” also known as sonography will be used to verify if there is no septum as seen below.
Surgery can be done to correct certain malformations by hysteroscopy in the operating room by our doctors.
ANOMALY THAT DEVELOPS OVER TIME
Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) tumors located on the lining of the uterus, whether isolated or in groups.
Also known as myomas, leiomyomas, or uterine fibromyomas, fibroids usually appear in women after the age of 30. They can vary in size from the size of a pea to that of a grapefruit or more.
In most cases, fibroids do not cause any symptoms. For some women, they can sometimes be very uncomfortable and cause heavy menstrual bleeding and pain. Some fibroids can affect fertility depending on their location in the uterus and their size.
The ultrasound will be used to verify the uterus and the “Sonohysterosalpingogram” also known as sonography will be used to verify if there is no fibroid inside, also known as a submucosa.
Uterine fibroids are very common, but don’t necessarily need to be treated. However, if they need to be, it is very important to develop a treatment plan appropriate to the needs and circumstances of each patient.
Surgery can be performed to remove them either laparoscopically or hysteroscopically in the hospital operating room by our doctors.
Here is a pamphlet written by Dr Faez Faruqi:
Endometriosis is characterized by the development of endometrial tissue outside of the pelvic cavity. In fact, these tissues should be evacuated during menstruation, but they are found implanted on different organs.
The main symptom of endometriosis is localized pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic area (pelvic pain).
Approximately 6 to 10% of women have endometriosis. The percentage of women with endometriosis is higher among infertile women (25-50%) and those with pelvic pain (75-80%).
How does endometriosis cause infertility? The exact mechanism remains uncertain, there are a few theories that have been put forward to explain how endometriosis causes infertility.
- The biological environment of a woman with endometriosis could affect the interaction between the sperm and the egg.
- The endometrium (uterine lining) would not be able to fully assume its role after fertilization, which is to allow implantation of the embryo
- Ovarian cysts can cause a decrease in ovarian reserve.
As for treatment, usually hormone intake, which involves increasing ovulation and intrauterine insemination, will be used first. When the disease is a little more advanced or the first treatments are ineffective, in vitro fertilization will be the best option.
Certain surgeries can be performed to remove, if necessary, endometriosis either laparoscopically or hysteroscopically in the operating room by our doctors.Here is an explanatory pamphlet on endometriosis by Dr Faruqi:
Uterine polyps are growths that develop at the expense of the lining of the womb (endometrium).
The polyp often prevents implantation of the embryo due to the fact that they look like inflamed, bleeding balls that interfere with implantation. But it also happens that women with polyps in the womb can still start a pregnancy.
They are most often asymptomatic (without any symptoms).
They are frequently discovered:
- Following a haemorrhage occurring outside the rules (metrorrhagia) or following excessive periods (menorrhagia);
- During a fertility check-up (ultrasound, hysterosalpingography, diagnostic hysteroscopy);
- Or by chance, during a pelvic ultrasound or during a routine gynecological consultation.
The ultrasound will be used to verify the uterus and the “Sonohysterosalpingogram” also known as sonography will be used to verify if there is no uterine polyp.
Surgery can be done to remove them by hysteroscopy in the hospital operating room by our doctors.
Hydrosalpinx is the dilation of the fallopian tubes by a clear, serous fluid. It is often caused by an infection, which creates tubal inflammation. The tubes form a liquid that naturally flows into the uterus, but when the tube is blocked, the liquid builds up, which can cause pain.
In terms of fertility, the blocked tube prevents the egg from passing from the ovary to the uterus, and it prevents the sperm from reaching it. Almost like a bridge. Because it is in the tube that fertilization takes place, the fertilized egg then takes 3 to 4 days before arriving in the uterus. A simple ultrasound can diagnose this problem.
Surgery can be done to resolve hydrosalpinx laparoscopically in the hospital operating room by our doctors.
There are several forms of cysts;
- Functional cysts; follicular (before ovulation) or luteal (after ovulation)
These are very normal and usually follow menstrual cycles.
Serous cysts (the most common);
Endometriotic cysts, linked to endometriosis.
Since cysts are usually painless, a cyst diagnosis is often made during a pelvic exam. An ultrasound makes it possible to visualize the cyst and determine its size, shape and location. Some cysts do not need treatment, but some require medical intervention.
It all depends on the type of cyst, the doctor will explain the treatment adapted to your situation during your meeting.
UTERINE TRAUMA CAUSING SCARRING
Asherman’s syndrome is a rare and acquired disease of the uterus.
In women with this condition, scar tissue or adhesions form in the uterus due to some form of trauma.
Some women with Asherman’s syndrome are unable to conceive or have recurrent miscarriages. It is possible to get pregnant if you have Asherman’s syndrome, but the adhesions in the uterus can pose a risk to the developing fetus. Your chances of miscarriage and stillbirth will also be higher than in women without this condition.
For this, the “Sonohysterosalpingogram” also known as sonography will be used to check if there is no Asherman.
Surgery can be done to remove them by hysteroscopy in the hospital operating room by our doctors, in some cases it is also possible to do it directly at the clinic by vaginoscope.
This intervention consists of restoring fertility after a tubal ligation.
Surgery can be done laparoscopically in the hospital operating room by our doctors.
In some cases, some women prefer it to the process of IVF cycle.
A discussion with your doctor will inform you on what your best option is.